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Passion fruit
Scientific name:
Passiflora edulis (purple passion fruit) / P. edulis var. flavicarpa (yellow passion fruit)
Violales: Passifloraceae
Common names:
Pests and Diseases:
Aphids  Broad or yellow tea mite  Brown spot  Bugs   Fruit flies  Fusarium wilt  Leafmining flies (leafminers)  Mealybugs  Phytophthora blight  Root-knot nematodes  Septoria spot  Spider mites  Thrips  Woodiness potyvirus  Brown spot, Septoria spot, Phytophthora blight, Woodiness potyvirus, Bugs, Broad or yellow tea mite  

Aphids (Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae)

Aphids damage plants by sucking plant sap causing curling, wrinkling or cupping of infested leaves, giving plants a deformed shape. They spread viruses and excrete honeydew, which coat the plants and leads to growth of sooty mould, which can diminish the photosynthetic capacity of plants. Aphids are usually controlled by natural enemies if they have not been disturbed for instance by the use of broad-spectrum pesticides.

What to do:
  • Plant the crop in well prepared, fertile land, but do avoid applying nitrogenous fertiliser, as this will promote new growth, which makes the plants juicy and attractive to aphids.
© Magnus Gammelgaard

The broad mite or yellow tea mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus)

It is the most important mite pest of passion fruit in Kenya. Broad mites are tiny (0.1-0.2 mm long) and cannot be seen with the naked eye, and are even difficult to detect with a hand lens. An attack by the broad mites can be detected by the symptoms of damage.

Their feeding produces discolouration, necrosis of tissues and deformation. Initial attack occurs on stems of terminal shoots and young terminal leaves. Attacked young leaves are stunted, deformed (slender, twisted or crumpled), fail to elongate and finally may wilt and dry. Stems of terminal shoots may become slightly swollen, roughened or russeted. As a result the growth of the plant is affected and flower production reduced causing considerably yield reduction. A bronzed dusty appearance may occur on affected plant parts. Attacked fruits become deformed and show white to tan or brown scars on the skin. This damage usually does not affect the internal quality of fruits but affect their market value. Severely attacked fruits may fall. Symptoms remain for a long period of time after control.

What to do:
  • Broad mites are attacked by predacious mites. Phytoseiulus persimilis is not very much attracted to broad mites. Amblyseius spp. are better predators of broad mites, in particular A. californicus is used for control of broad mites in different parts of the world.
  • Broad mites can be effectively controlled with sulphur sprays. However, sulphur is toxic to predatory mites and can have phytotoxic effects on young leaves and shoots at high sulphur dosages and when applied during hot weather.
Broad mites
© A.M. Varela, icipe

Brown spot (Alternaria passiflorae)

The most important disease worldwide is brown spot on leaves, vines and fruits. Symptoms are brown spots, up to 10 mm diameter, on the leaves, often extending along the veins and drying out in the centre. On the stems, spots are up to 30 mm long, and when they occur at the leaf axils may kill the vine, resulting in dieback. On the fruit, the spots are light brown, round and sunken; they often merge, covering large areas, and produce red-brown spore masses. Spores, produced on the leaf, stem and fruit, are dispersed by wind-blown rain. Warm, moist weather favours disease development. (EcoPort)

What to do:
  • Yellow passion fruit and its hybrids are more tolerant to this disease.
  • Field sanitation (collection and disposal of fallen diseased fruits, leaves and vines).
  • Pruning vines to reduce density and thereby reducing humidity within the crop. It also facilitate better air circulation, light and spray penetration and cover.
  • Timely sprays with copper based fungicides. During humid weather, when the vines are growing rapidly, reduce the intervals between spray applications to 2 or 3 weeks to ensure that new growth is adequately protected.
Brown spot
© A. A. Seif, icipe

Brown spot…

Brown spot


Several species of sucking bugs feed on passion fruit. The most important are:

The green stinkbug (Nezara viridula)
The brown stinkbug (Boerias maculata)
Coreid bugs such as the giant coreid bug or tip wilter (Anoplocnemis curvipes) and the leaf footed plant bug (Leptoglossus membranaceus).

Bugs suck sap from the growing tips or developing fruits. The bugs pierce the terminal buds, which eventually wilt and die back. Young plants may be killed if the attack is severe. The punctured young fruits develop localised hardened spots that remain on the fruit reducing their market value.

What to do:
  • In small orchard bugs can be hand picked and destroyed.
  • Watering and irrigation discourage bugs.
  • Old crops or sprouting stumps left in the field provide refuges for bugs so they should be destroyed or dig into the soil.
  • Growing strong smelling plants such as garlic and onion near the crop is reported to reduce infestations.
  • Spraying plants with a soapy solution helps to wash off young bugs.
Tip wilter
© A.M.Varela, icipe

Tip wilter

Stinkbug d…

Green stin…

Leaf foote…

Bug damage

Fruit flies (Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata)

Fruit flies that feed on passion fruit in Africa include the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata).

Pierced young fruit shrivels and falls; later injuries cause damage that lowers the market value of the fruit. However, the incidence of fruit flies on passion fruit is low, and usually of not economic importance. So control may not be necessary.

What to do:
  • Collect and destroy all fallen fruits at least twice a week during the fruit season.
  • Do not put collected damaged fruits into compost heaps. Instead, burn them or bury them at least 50 cm deep, so that the fruit flies cannot reach the soil surface.
  • Remove fruits with dimples and those that ooze clear sap. This method is more laborious than picking the rotten fruits from the ground, but it is also more effective.
  • Whenever possible, wrap fruit in newspaper or paper bags to prevent fruit flies from laying eggs on the fruit. This has to be done well before the fruit matures.
  • Pick overripe fruits, as they attract fruit flies.
  • Physical methods include fruit fly traps and fruit bagging, see on fruit-fly datasheet
Fruit fly
© R. C. Copeland, icipe

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae)

Fusarium wilt (also called collar rot) symptoms consist of yellowing of leaves, the collar region of affected plant at soil level turns brownish and vertically cracks and vines wilt followed by a complete collapse of the plant. On dissection of infected stem, vascular tissues show brown discolouration.

What to do:
  • Affected parts should be removed and burned. Snap off the affected parts or remove the affected plant manually.
  • Do not cut tissue and then use the knife on healthy plants.
  • Keep the base of the plant clear of grass and weeds, which favour fungal growth.
  • Grafting to wilt-resistant yellow passion fruit rootstocks (e.g. P. caerula) is the most practical way of control.
Fusarium wilt
© A. M. Varela, icipe

Fusarium w…

Fusarium w…

Fusarium w…

Leafmining flies (Lyriomyza spp)

Feeding and egg laying by leafmining flies cause stippling of leaves. This can kill seedlings and in older plants allows entry of disease-causing microorganisms. Feeding by maggots causes mining (tunnelling) of leaves reducing the productive leaf area. Heavily attacked leaves may drop off, and may lead to yield losses.

What to do:
  • Control by natural enemies is important.
  • Ploughing can help in exposing pupae to desiccation and natural enemies.
  • Neem products are effective for controlling leafminers.
© A.M. Varela

Mealybugs (Planococcus citri and P. kenya)

Mealybugs infest fruits and foliage. They can be serious pests in the warm season, if natural enemies, which usually control them, are destroyed by spraying with pesticides.

They are 3-5 mm long, soft, elongate oval and somewhat flattened

What to do:
  • Conserve natural enemies. Mealybugs are usually controlled by a wide range of natural enemies. However, use of pesticides may kill these natural enemies leading to mealybug outbreaks.
© Courtesy EcoPort ( John A. Weidhass



Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora nicotianae var. parastica)

Affected leaves are water-soaked and light-brown in colour. They fall readily, leading to defoliation of the vines. Affected areas of the stem are first purple and later brown above the graft union. They may completely girdle the stem causing wilting and collapse of the vine. Fruit symptoms comprise of large, water-soaked areas. Diseased fruits fall readily and in wet weather become covered with white, fungal growth.

Another strain of the fungus (Phytophthora cinnamoni) causes root rot. Yellow and purple varieties have different patterns of susceptibility. The yellow vine is susceptible to P. cinnamoni, and the purple vine is more susceptible to P. nicotianae. Both fungus strains attack both passion fruits and can cause root rot, wilt, damping off and leaf blight. Fungal spores are initially produced in wet soil beneath the vines and are splashed up to lower leaf canopy.

The disease is favoured by wet, windy weather.

What to do:
  • Good field sanitation.
  • Pruning and keeping a grass sward under the vines to minimise spore splashed up to the lower leaves.
  • Graft to resistant rootstocks (e.g. )P. caerula.
  • The application of copper-based fungicides every 2-3 months during the wet season reduces disease incidence in areas where the disease is likely to be serious. Stem lesions may be painted with a copper fungicide. For more information on copper-based fungicides click here .
Phytophthora blight
© A. A. Seif, icipe




Amongst nematodes infesting passion fruit the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria), are the most serious pests. Characteristic symptoms of infestation by root-knot nematodes are formation of galls or knots on roots, yellowing of leaves, stunting and eventual wilting of the affected plants.

What to do:
  • Rotate with cassava, cereals, maize, Baby corn, sweet corn, sweet potato, onions, cabbages / kale, garlic or fodder grasses (e.g. Sudan grass).
  • Use of tolerant rootstocks (e.g. P. caerula).
  • Maintain high organic matter (farmyard manure / compost) in the soil.
  • Incorporation of neem into planting at transplanting.
Root-knot nematodes
© A. M. Varela, icipe

Septoria spot (Septoria passiflorae)

The disease attacks leaves, stems and fruits. Brown spots up to 2 mm with minute, black dots (fruiting bodies containing fungal spores) develop on leaf surface. Infected leaves fall readily leading to defoliation of vines. Similar spots may form on the stems albeit elongated. On fruits light-brown spots studded with minute black dots may be formed. The spots often join up to cover large areas of the fruit. Affected fruits ripen unevenly. Spores produced by black dots (fruiting bodies) are blown to adjacent vines during wet, windy weather thus further spreading the disease. The disease is spread by rain, dew and overhead irrigation. Warm moist weather favours disease development.

What to do:
  • Disease management measures for brown spot disease (see above) are equally applicable for Septoria spot.
Septoria spot
© A. M. Varela, icipe.

Septoria s…

Septoria l…

Spider mites (Tetranychus spp.)

Their feeding causes tiny yellow or white speckles, eventually leaves become yellowish and may drop, and may led to complete defoliation. Heavily infested plants may become stunted. A heavy infestation might also cause vine dieback and shrivelling and dropping of immature fruit.

What to do:
  • Field hygiene is important for the management of spider mites. Old crops or weeds infested with mites can cause infestation of new crop.
  • Natural enemies such as predatory mites are important for control of spider mites.
Spider mites
© Warwick HRI, University of Warwick.

Fruit flies (Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis rosa)

Two species of fruit flies (Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis rosa) attack banana in Kenya. Bactrocera invadens is a new species recently discovered in Africa. This fruit fly is reported attacking banana in Sudan and Kenya and it is a major threat since it leads to rejection of banana in the export market.

What to do:
  • Bagging of young banana fruits is an effective method, used in the Pacific and South East Asia for protection against fruit flies. (Personal communication S. Ekesi, AFFI, icipe; Ekesi and Billah, 2006). Click here for more information on bagging
Fruit fly
© M. K. Billah, icipe

Passion fruit woodiness potyvirus (PWV)

A number of virus diseases have been reported, notably the passion fruit woodiness potyvirus. Affected leaves show light and dark green mosaic pattern often with light yellow speckle. Sometimes small, yellow ring spots may develop on upper leaf surface. Infected fruits are small and misshapen with very hard rind and small pulp cavity. When affected fruit is cut, the inside rind tissue may have brown spots. Some strains of the virus cause cracking of affected fruits.
They are spread by aphids (Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae) grafting and pruning knives. The virus has a wide host range including bananas, cucurbits and many weeds.

What to do:
  • Use virus-free planting material.
  • Disinfect pruning tools with household bleach.
  • Use resistant hybrids, or rootstocks of yellow passion fruit.
  • Remove diseased vines from the field.
  • Do proper weeding.
  • Avoid planting bananas and cucurbits near passion fruit fields.
Woodiness virus
© A.A.Seif, icipe

Woodiness …

Woodiness …

Woodiness …
General Information and Agronomic Aspects
Geographical Distribution of Passion fruit in Africa
Passionfruit is a native of southern Brazil where it grows on the edges of rain forests. There are two distinct forms: forma edulis, the purple passionfruit, occurs in cool environments at higher altitudes, and forma flavicarpa, the yellow passionfruit, which is at home in the tropical lowlands. The two types were distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics via Europe and Australia during the 19th century.

The passion is a perennial climbing plant, which was introduced into Kenya in the 1920's. It is now a popular fruit for both domestic and export markets. From 2001 to 2005 export from Kenya of passion fruit was around 1000 tons per year, against a total production of around 30,000 tons yearly.

The fruit may be eaten fresh, but mostly the pulp is extracted and preserved by heating or cooling. The juice has a unique and intense flavour and high acidity, which makes it a natural concentrate. When sweetened and diluted it is very palatable and blends well with other fruit juices. Typical processed products are ice cream, sherbet, nectar, juices, concentrate, squash, jams and jellies. Passiflora plants are often cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flowers.

Passion flowers are widely employed by herbalists and natural health practitioners around the world today. They are mostly employed as a sedative, hypnotic (inducing sleep), nervine, anti-spasmodic and pain reliever.

Nutritive Value per 100 g of edible Portion
Raw or Cooked Passion fruit Food
(Calories / %Daily Value*)
(g / %DV)
(g / %DV)
(g / %DV)
(g / %DV)
(mg / %DV)
(mg / %DV)
(mg / %DV)
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin B 6
Vitamin B 12
(mg / %DV)
(mg / %DV)
(g / %DV)
Purple Passion fruit raw 97.0 / 5% 23.4 / 8% 0.7 / 1% 2.2 / 4% 12.0 / 1% 68.0 / 7% 1.6 / 9% 348 / 10% 1272 IU / 25% 30.0 / 50% 0.1 / 5% 0.0 / 0% 0.0 / 0% 0.1 / 8% 0.8
Purple Passion Fruit Juice raw 51.0 / 3% 13.6 / 5% 0.1 / 0% 0.4 / 1% 4.0 / 0% 13.0 / 1% 0.2 / 1% 278 / 8% 717 IU / 14% 29.8 / 50% 0.1 / 3% 0.0 / 0% 0.0 / 0% 0.1 / 8% 0.3
Yellow Passion Fruit Juice raw 60.0 / 3% 14.5 / 5% 0.2 / 0% 0.7 / 1% 4.0 / 0% 25.0 / 2% 0.4 / 2% 278 / 8% 943 IU / 19% 18.2 / 30% 0.1 / 3% 0.0 / 0% 0.0 / 0% 0.1 / 6% 0.5
*Percent Daily Values (DV) are based on a 2000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower, depending on your calorie needs.

Climatic conditions, soil and water management
The yellow passion fruit grows best at altitudes of 0-800 m and is used mainly for the fresh fruit market. It can also be used as a rootstock for grafting of the purple variety; the purple passion fruit forms virtually no flowers below 1000 m and should be grown at altitudes of 1200-2000 m.
The mature purple passion fruit tolerates light frosts and can be grown in the subtropics. Other varieties exist such as the so-called banana passion fruit growing in highland areas and often climb very tall trees. It is yellow at maturity but with soft velvety skin and pink flowers quite different from the commercial passion fruits. The banana passion fruit is mainly used in sweetened juices, as it is not usually very sweet on its own.

All varieties grow on a wide range of soils; but light to heavy sandy loams, of medium texture and at least 60 cm deep are most suitable. Heavy clay soils have to be drained and very sandy ones need heavy manuring. A pH of 5.5-7 is preferred. If the soil is too acidic, lime must be applied. Good drainage and aeration are essential to minimise the incidence of diseases such as collar rot.
Purple passion fruit, especially, grows well on as little as 900 mm rainfall in Africa, provided the rainfall is well distributed. The vines require sheltered locations without extreme temperatures: Optimum temperatures for the purple variety are between 18-25°C and for the yellow variety 25-30°C. Critical temperatures were established for hybrid cultivars in Australia as follows: below 20°C pollen does not germinate and at 18-15°C both growth and flowering are set back, whereas temperatures above 30-32°C stimulate growth at the expense of flowering and fruit set (CABI).

Passion Fruit Types
There are two main forms of the passion fruit, the purple and the yellow varieties, with the yellow being distinguished as P. edulis var.flavicarpa. Hybrids can be made between purple and yellow passion fruit, which yields intermediates between the two forms.
Principal characteristics of the yellow type:
  • Yellow rind and larger fruit
  • More acid flavour
  • Flowers are self-sterile - wind is ineffective because of the heaviness and stickiness of the pollen. They must be pollinated, and carpenter bees are the most efficient pollinators.
  • More vigorous vine
  • More tolerant of frost
  • Resistant to nematodes and Fusarium wilt
  • Brown seeds

Principal characteristics of the purple type:
  • Purple rind and smaller fruit
  • Sweet less acidic pulp richer in aroma and flavour and has a higher proportion of juice (35-38%)
  • Can self pollinate but pollination is best under humid conditions
  • Less vigorous vine
  • If crossing yellow and purple types, it is necessary to use the purple parent as the seed parent because the flowers of the yellow are not receptive to the pollen of the purple, and an early blooming yellow must be utilised in order to have a sufficient overlapping period for pollen transfer. These crosses have some ability to withstand ?woodiness? virus.
  • Black seeds

Names and Characteristics of some Commercial Passion Fruit Varieties
Variety Name Origin and Characteristics
Australian Purple or Nelly Kelly Mild sweet flavour
Common Purple Naturalised Hawaiian variety. Thick skinned with small cavity
Kapoho Selection A cross of yellow Hawaiian strains. A heavy bearer but subject to brown rot.
Black Knight Purple cultivar
Bountiful Beauty Purple cultivar
Sevcik Selection Golden form of the yellow, a heavy bearer but subject to brown rot.
University Round Selection Hawaiian cross ? small fruit and not attractive but high juice yield.
Nelly Kelly Australian purple cultivar
Waimanalo Selection Consists of four strains, C-54, C-77, C-80 of similar size, shape and colour and C-39 as a pollinator.
Nancy Garrison Purple cultivar
Yee Selection Yellow, round, attractive and highly disease resistant.
Ester Very large purple fruit ? variety imported as large passion fruit.
Purple Giant Purple cultivar
Kahuna Very large medium purple fruit good for juicing and produces over a long season

Propagation and planting
Passion fruit is generally propagated from seed, although cuttings and grafting can be used. Seed should be rubbed clean of pulp and dried in the shade. Germination takes 2-4 weeks. Fresh seeds are much easier to germinate than seeds older than one or two months. Older seeds can be soaked for at least one day to improve germination. Seedlings are often raised in polythene bags, 15 cm wide and 25 cm deep. Three seeds per bag are sown at a depth of 1 cm and thinned to leave one after two months. Cuttings are set in coarse sand and later transplanted into bags or a nursery bed. The seedlings grow slowly and require 3-4 months to reach the transplanting height of 15-25 cm. Seedlings must be hardened off by leaving them in an open, shaded area for a day or two.

Grafting is often used to control diseases. Yellow passion fruit is used as resistant rootstock although other Passiflora species, in particular P. caerulea L., show much greater resistance to Phytophthora root rot and Fusarium collar rot. Moreover, P. caerulea is tolerant of root-knot nematodes and to exposure to -1.5°C; it can be propagated from leaf and stem cuttings and is compatible with P. edulis. Wedge and whip grafts on seedling rootstocks - sometimes on rooted cuttings - are used.

Within 5-7 weeks after transplanting, each plant will have up to four healthy laterals. From then on the vine grows very rapidly; the first flowers are produced 5-7 months after transplanting when the vine can be 10-15 m long.

Light is the essential factor for flowering and in passionfruit this is particularly true for floral development and fruit set. That is why training and pruning are important to ensure adequate exposure of the shoots. Depending on the climate there may be one to three harvest peaks (purple passionfruit) or a single, often very long harvest season (more common with the yellow passionfruit).

Land preparation
Deep ploughing and harrowing is necessary to remove hard pans in the soil. Passion fruit has a deep root system; therefore proper land cultivation is necessary. Commercial plantations adopt a row spacing of 1.2-1.8 m and a within-row spacing of 3 m. This gives around 1900-2700 plants/ha. Planting holes of 45 x 45 x 45 cm should be filled with topsoil mixed with up to 10 kg of compost or manure. Transplanting is done at the start of the rainy season.
At planting the soil around the plants should be firmed down to establish good root/soil contact. In order to avoid fungal infection the grafting spot should not have any contact with the soil during and after planting. The seedling should then be irrigated to ensure quick rooting and establishment of the plant.

Early growth of passion fruit is slow and regular weeding is essential. Care should be taken when weeding in order to avoid any injury to the plant. Mulching along the rows or around the base of the plants greatly facilitates weed control and protects the roots. Elaborate trellises have been used in Australia and South Africa, but in East Africa, especially at closer spacing, a single wire trellis has been found to be as good. A 14-gauge galvanized wire is tightly stretched along the tops of hardwood posts 15 cm in diameter and 3 m long, dug in to a depth of 0.6 m; these posts are spaced 8 m apart. The trellis should be erected when the field is planted so that the main shoot and one vigorous lateral can be tied to the wire with a string. If laterals do not emerge in time, they can be forced to leaf out by pinching off the shoot tip. When the vines reach the wire they are trained in opposite directions along it. All laterals below the wire are pruned off. Laterals emerging along the wire are allowed to hang down freely; they are the secondary shoots branching into tertiary shoots. Secondary and higher-order shoots are the fruiting wood, which has to be thinned and rejuvenated by pruning.

Regular fertilisation is necessary for optimum yields. Frequent sprays with compost tea or similar organic foliar feed should be applied starting from 1 month after planting and at least every 3 months after that. Mixing EM or BM with foliar sprays may prevent fungal attacks.

Old unproductive shoots and dead wood must be removed. Also secondary shoots reaching the ground must be cut off about 5 cm above the ground. The laterals which bear fruit should be left to hang down freely from the wire and the entangling tendrils removed to allow free air and light penetration and reduce incidences of disease and pest epidemics. Disinfect with commercial detergent all equipment used for pruning regularly to avoid spread of viral diseases.

A wide range of vegetables and other crops can be intercropped with passion fruit. Intercropping with annuals is recommended; especially vegetables like beans, cabbages and tomatoes are agronomically suitable. Other recommended crops include potatoes, beetroots, Swiss chard, carrots, spinach, strawberries, eggplants, peppers, onions, leeks and head lettuce. However, cucurbits (cucumbers, pumpkin, and squashes) are not recommended due to the woodiness virus and fruit flies. Other crops that should not be intercropped with passion fruits are maize, cowpea, sorghum, okra, sweet potatoes and other creepers (GTZ, 1978). Intercropping can help in erosion control particularly when fed with good compost.

To avoid build up of soil-borne diseases strict crop rotation should be practised (see suitable crops under intercropping). Passion fruits should not be grown for more than 2-3 years on the same plot.

If a plantation is cropped for 3 years; of the total crop, roughly 50% is produced in the first year, 35% in the second, and 15% in the third year. The sharp decline in yield level, which is even more marked in areas with disease problems, is the main reason to replant fields after the second or third crop.

Average yields amount to 10-15 t/ha per year for the purple and 20-25 t/ha per year for the yellow passionfruit. Much higher yields are possible; yields as high as 50 t/ha per year for purple passionfruit have been reported from Kenya.

Fruit drops to the ground when fully mature. It is collected every second day; at this stage it looks shrivelled and unattractive, but for processing fruits should be picked at this stage. For fresh fruit markets, especially the export market, fruit is picked after full colour development when the whole fruit is purple or canary yellow, but before shrivelling and drying set in.
Information on Pests
Biological methods of plant protection
Nematodes, especially the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria), are the most serious pests on passion fruit. Practical control measures are crop rotation and the use of tolerant rootstocks.

Several species of sucking bugs feed on passion fruit. They suck and pierce leaves and young fruits; these are minor pests.

Fruit flies that feed on passionfruit include the melon fly (B. cucurbitae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni). Pierced young fruit shrivels and falls; later injuries cause damage which lowers the grade. Spraying of biopesticides may be necessary if destruction of infested fruit and the use of baits do not adequately check the pest.

Mealybugs (Planococcus citri and P. kenyae) are usually controlled by their natural enemies.

The same to applies mites the red spider mites and the broad mites - which incidentally do much damage.

Examples of Passion Fruit Pests and Organic Control Methods
Information on Diseases
Biological methods of plant protection
The most important disease on passion fruit is brown spot (Alternaria passiflorae) on leaves, vines and fruits. Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora nicotianae) causes the wilting of shoot tips and crown rot, particularly where water stagnates occasionally. Septoria spot, caused by the fungus Septoria passiflorae, causes extensive spotting of leaf and fruit, and occasionally of the stem. Yellow passionfruit and its hybrids are more tolerant to these diseases.

Fusarium wilt (also called collar rot) is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae; the shoots wilt, followed by a complete collapse of the plant. Grafting to wilt-resistant yellow passionfruit rootstocks is the most practical way of control. Damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. can be a problem in nurseries and soils should be sterilised.

A number of virus diseases have been reported, notably passionfruit woodiness potyvirus (PWV). They are spread by aphids (Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae) and pruning knives. Other virus diseases are ringspot from Côte d'Ivoire, which is similar to PWV. The most practical control is to use clean planting material, clean pruning tools and resistant hybrids, or rootstocks of yellow passionfruit.

Examples of Passion Fruit Diseases and Organic Control Methods
Information Source Links
  • AIC (2003). Fruits and Vegetables technical handbook, revised edition 2003. Agriculture Information Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
  • CAB International (2006). Crop Protection Compendium, 2006 Edition. Wallingford, UK
  • Cooper, J., Dobson, H., Orchard, J. (2004). Passion Fruit Technical Itinerary. NRI - MU/PIP COLEACP, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Economic Review of Agriculture 2006. Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi Kenya
  • GTZ. (1978). Passion fruit growing in Kenya. A Recommendation for Smallholders. By German Agricultural team in Kenya.
  • Griesbach, J. (1992). A Guide to Propagation and Cultivation of Fruit Trees in Kenya. Published by German Technical Cooperation of Germany (GTZ). ISBN: 3 88085 482 3.
  • Integration of Tree Crops into Farming Systems Project (GTZ) & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Kenya (2000). Tree Crop Propagation and Management - A Farmer Trainer Training Manual.
  • Nutrition Data
Transplanting is the planting of uprooted seedlings grown in seedbeds or in nurseries, in a permanent location where they will continue to grow
Crop rotation
Crop rotation is the practice of growing different crops in succession on the same land.
of or pertaining to the side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side: a lateral view.
Thickness or width.
Cucurbitaceae is a plant family commonly known as melons, gourds or cucurbits and includes crops like cucumbers, squashes (including pumpkins), luffas, melons and watermelons. The family is predominantly distributed around the tropics, where those with edible fruits were amongst the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds.
Farmyard manure
Droppings and beddings of farm animals, usually of cattle.
To reduce, by physical or chemical means, the number of potentially harmful microorganisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety and suitability.
Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They perform an essential role in all ecosystems in decomposing organic matter and are indispensable in nutrient cycling and exchange. Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds.

Fungi are responsible for a range of serious plant diseases such as blight, grey mould, bunts, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. Crops of all kinds often suffer heavy losses.

Fungal plant diseases are usually managed with applications of chemical fungicides or heavy metals. In some cases, conventional breeding has provided fungus resistantcultivars.

Besides combatting yield losses, preventing fungal infection keeps crops free of toxic compounds produced by some pathogenic fungi. These compounds, often referred to as mycotoxins, can affect affect the immune system and disrupt hormone balances. Some mycotoxins are carcinogenic.
A plant stem that grows horizontally under or along the ground and often sends out roots and shoots. New plants develop from the shoots.
Refers to the farming system and products described in the IFOAM standard and not to 'organic chemistry'.
Animal that attacks and feeds on other animals, such as an insect (e.g. ladybird beetle), bird or spider feeding on pest insects.
Biopesticides include microbiological pesticides (based on fungi, bacteria and virus) but also botanicals (plant extracts), since they are extracted from or are products of living organisms (plants)
Ability of a living organism not to get affected by a disease or pest; or of a pest not to be affected by a pesticide.

Pesticide Resistance is the ability of a life form to develop a tolerance to a pesticide. Pests (weeds, insects, mites, diseases, etc.) that become resistant to a pesticide will not be affected by the pesticide. When pests are resistant, it is more difficult to control the pest. Therefore, it is important to try to prevent pesticide resistance.
Cultivar is a plant variety. It is a group of similar plants which through their structural features and performance can be identified from other varieties within the same species.
Intercropping is the planting of two or more crops in the same field, usually planted in alternating rows or sections.
Necrosis is the death of some or all of the cells in an organ or tissue, caused by disease, physical or chemical injury.
Cultivar is a plant variety. It is a group of similar plants which through their structural features and performance can be identified from other varieties within the same species.
A microorganism is an organism that is microscopic (usually too small to be seen by the naked human eye). Microorganisms are very diverse. They include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (called green algae); and animals such as plankton, the planarian and the amoeba. Some also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living.
Symptom - the plant's response to the disease causing organism, examples are; changes in plant color, death of infected tissues, and wilting. It is the external or internal physical characteristic of a disease as expressed by the host plant.