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< prev - next > Disaster response mitigation and rebuilding Emergency relief KnO 100425_Types of toilet and their suitability (Printable PDF)
Types of toilet and their suitability
Practical Action
The options available for emptying and notes about filling rates and other important
considerations can be found in the Practical Action technical brief ‘Pit-Emptying Systems’.
Upgrading sanitation
One useful consideration
to note is that on-site
sanitation systems are
not necessarily confined
to one type. If designed
with forethought then a
toilet can be upgraded
gradually as a means to
progressively improve the
service or adapt it to
changing conditions.
Each of the above types
of system can be scaled
up and incorporated into
communal blocks to
provide sanitation
facilities in public blocks
such as bus stations and
markets or institutions
such as schools. If water
seals are not used it is
advisable to provide each
cubicle with a separate
pit and vent pipe to
prevent odour problems.
Responsibilities for
communal facilities must
be carefully assigned so
that the facilities do not
fall into disrepair.
There are many types of
toilet that can be
adopted to increase
sanitation coverage. This
technical brief has
Figure 7: Incremental improvements to sanitation facilities.
(Source: WELL, 1998)
outlined some of the main options available and the advantages and disadvantages associated
with each. In general off-site systems are used for urban areas, whereas on-site systems are used
in both rural and urban areas.
Each system provides various advantages and disadvantages. It is of primary importance to
consult the end users of these systems to ensure they get a system that is appropriate to their