page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11 page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
< prev - next > Water for Life - Community water security (Printable PDF)
Water for Life 11
Testing for water safety
Testing water in a laboratory or with a water quality test kit can show the type
and amount of contamination. Water testing may be done by professionals, who
take samples of local water to a laboratory to test it. Laboratory testing is usually
necessary to find chemical contamination. These tests are helpful, but can be costly.
Testing water for germs may be done locally using a test kit. One kind of test kit,
called the H2S test, is widely used to test for germs in water. It is not costly (5 tests
cost about 1 dollar) and it gives quick results. But this test sometimes mistakes
harmless living things for germs, and it does not show if chemicals or harmful parasite
eggs are present. Another problem with this and
other water quality tests is that they only show
if the water is contaminated at the time and
place the water sample is taken.
H2S test
Water quality testing has many advantages
and can be used successfully under some
conditions. But it is not a replacement for a
community water assessment plan, careful
protection of water sources, and common sense.
Diarrhea diseases
Diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, and typhoid are caused by many kinds of germs carried
by human waste, unsafe water, flies and insects, and on food. Diarrhea can be a sign
of some kinds of worm and parasite infections. These illnesses may also be caused by
poor sanitation and a lack of enough water for personal cleanliness.
Signs of diarrhea diseases
The most common sign of a diarrhea disease is frequent, watery stools. It may be
accompanied by fever, headache, trembling, chills, weakness, and vomiting. Because
there are many causes of diarrhea and dysentery, knowing what treatment to give
depends on the kind of diarrhea.
These signs can help you know which diarrhea disease a person has:
Cholera: diarrhea like rice water, severe intestinal pain and cramping, vomiting
Typhoid: fever, severe intestinal pain and cramping, headache, constipation or
Giardia: diarrhea that appears greasy, floats and smells bad, gas and burps that
smell like rotten eggs
Bacterial dysentery (Shigella): bloody diarrhea, fever, severe intestinal pain
and cramping
Amebic dysentery: bloody diarrhea, fever, severe intestinal pain and cramping