Note: The English language is notoriously imprecise, and these suggested translations should be taken only as a guide, not as absolutes.
Subtraction 
minus 
“a number minus 2” 
x – 2 
difference between 
“the difference between a number and 8” 
x – 8 

from 
“2 from a number” 
n – 2 

less 
“a number less 3” 
n – 3 

less than 
“3 less than a number” 
y – 3 

fewer than 
“2 fewer than a number” 
y – 2 

decreased by 
“a number decreased by 2” 
x – 2 

take away 
“a number take away 2” 
x – 2 

Addition 
plus 
“a number plus 2” 
x + 2 
and 
“3 and a number” 
3 + n 

added to 
“8 added to a number” 
x + 8 

greater than 
“3 greater than a number” 
n + 3 

more than 
“3 more than a number” 
y + 3 

increased by 
“a number increased by 2” 
y + 2 

total 
“the total length” 
l_{1} + l_{2} 

sum of 
“The sum of length and width” 
l + w 

Multiplication 
times 
“5 times a number” 
5n 
product 
“The product of 3 and a number” 
3y 

at 
“3 at 1.59” 
3 ´ 1.59 

double, triple, etc. 
“double a number” 
2x 

twice 
“twice a number” 
2y 

of (fractions of) 
“threefourths of a number” 
_{} 

Division 
quotient of 
“The quotient of 5 and a number” 
_{} 
Half of 
“half of a number” 
_{} 

goes into 
“a numbergoes into 6 twice” 
_{} 

per 
“The price is $8 per 50” 
_{} 

Equals 
Is, is the same as, gives, will be, was, is equivalent to 
