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< prev - next > Waste management best_practices_iswm (Printable PDF)
In Bharatpur, it is estimated that 15 per cent of
municipal solid waste is recycled and that almost 50
per cent of the domestic waste and 25 per cent of
institutional waste is collected at source each day
(Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data). In order to
encourage HH segregation and waste minimisation,
Practical Action Nepal has been distributing compost
bins19 and suiro hooks to the residents of various wards
of Bharatpur.
A total of 530 compost bins (capacity 50 kg), 550 plastic
buckets (capacity 10 kg) and 1200 suiro hooks have
been distributed by Practical Action throughout
Bharatpur municipality (Practical Action, Bharatpur,
2008 data. The municipality is also selling compost
bins for NRs.700 and suiro hooks for NRs.10
(Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data). Compost is sold
for NRs.15/kg (Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data).
Local itinerant waste buyers buy plastics for NRs.10/
kg (Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data), paper for
NRs.12-13, glass for NRs.2 and ferrous material for
NRs.37/kg ( Bharatpur municipality,2008 data).
Transport and the final disposal
Since 2006, Bharatpur municipality has been dumping
all of its waste at the Ramnagar dumping site, which is
11km from the city and 4.5 km east of Ramnagar Bazaar
area. One loader, 25 one wheeled barrows that can carry
50 kg, 15 tricycles of capacity 300-500 kg, and two tractors
with trailers that can carry 2 tons each are used by the
contractor for waste collection and dumping (Bharatpur
Municipality, 2008 data). Municipal records show that
every day 15 tons of waste are dumped at the dumping
site and that the site is expected to be used for another 5
years (Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data). During the
field visit it was observed that the waste was burning and
that dead animals had been dumped there. However no
waste pickers were observed. The municipality has
sometimes sprayed pesticides after dumping the waste in
an attempt to minimise health risks.
Organisational and
financial aspects
The contractor, Mr. Shayam Kumar Shrestha, employs
a staff of 53 for waste collection, transportation and
disposal operations (Bharatpur municipality, 2008
data). The daily operation and management system is
supported by one officer from the municipality, with
two supervisors, two drivers, ten helpers, and one
cleaning assistant (Bharatpur municipality, 2008 data).
The income of this municipality is derived from various
sources, including property tax, municipal tax, licence
fees, grants from the government, grants from foreign
organisations, and user charges. The Town Development
Fund (TDF) has provided loans for municipal
infrastructure improvement in past years. The UNDP-
PPPUE programme has chosen this case for their PPPUE
research because Bharatpur is one of the most rapidly
growing urban areas of Nepal. The business activities
and its location are also factors that favoured its selection.
In comparison with other municipal expenditures,
municipal expenditure on waste management was 5
per cent in the fiscal year 2006-2007(Bharatpur
municipality, 2007 data). For the solid waste
management service, the municipality is contracted to
pay NRs.4.6 million each year to the contractor
(Bharatpur municipality, 2007 data). In the fiscal year
2006-2007 the total municipal expenditure was almost
NRs.96 million (Bharatpur municipality, 2007 data).
Total municipal expenditure per person for the year was
NRs.710.33. During the field visit, it was noted that the
contractor does not collect any fee for waste collection
from the residents. However, local TLOs20 have agreed
to pay NRs.50 and NRs.100 per month respectively for
residential and commercial premises to improve the
collection and disposal of waste (Bharatpur
municipality, 2008 data). With this in mind, the
municipality is planning to approve the decision from
the municipal board on waste collection charges.
Major problems and issues
Despite its effective system of private sector partnership
for waste collection, the municipality is facing the
problems of rapid urbanisation, the poor response of
residents to calls for waste minimisation, a shortage of
waste management staff and financial limitations. Other
difficulties include the lack of authority to make
financial and administrative decisions, the lack of trained
personnel, the lack of standardised vehicles and frequent
breakdowns of vehicles, the need for enforcement
19 Capacity 50 kilograms
20 In many urban areas of Nepal, Tole Lane Organizations have played a significant role in motivating local people.