page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19 page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
< prev - next > Waste management best_practices_iswm (Printable PDF)
on the western side of the municipality at a distance
of 5.4 km from the city centre. The total area of the
landfill site is 20 ha and the estimated life span of the
landfill is 50 years. Ten tons of wastes are deposited
at this site each day (Tribhuvannagar municipality,
2008 data). This means that 72 per cent of the
generated waste was being disposed safely at the
landfill. The main features of the site that ensure safe
disposal include a leachate15 collection tank, a vertical
barrier, gas vents, a waste sorting area, trenches for
composting and a site office.
During the field visit neither animals, waste pickers nor
open burning were observed at the landfill site. Residents
living near the landfill site area were demanding basic
infrastructure services as compensation for the proximity
of the landfill site. However, local people did not have
any complaint regarding the location of the landfill site,
but rather, because of the lack of elected representatives;
they were using the landfill site as an opportunity for
requesting infrastructure services. In order to maintain
an attractive environment around the landfill site, 3,000
trees (fruit trees and other varieties) have been planted
and 150 beehives installed (Tribhuvannagar municipality,
2008 data). These improvements not only improve the
environment, but also provide a source of income for
the municipality.
Special hospital waste is disposed by the hospital in
trenches within its own compound (Tribhuvannagar
municipality, 2008 data).
recycling sold for NRs.169,106, grass from the landfill
site was sold for NRs.14,100, and sales of firewood from
the landfill site raised NRs.31,450 (Tribhuvannagar
municipality, 2007 data). In addition, the municipality
plans to sell fruit grown on the site in future.
According to the municipality data, in the fiscal year
2006-2007, the total income of this municipality was
NRs.10 million and the total expenditure on
environmental development was NRs.2.5 million
(Tribhuvannagar municipality, 2007 data). In comparison
with other municipal expenditures, expenditure in the
last fiscal year on waste management was 25 per cent of
total expenditure, which is a considerably higher
proportion than is found in the other municipalities of
Nepal. Therefore, total expenditure for environmental
development which includes SWM as well per person
per year in the last fiscal year was NRs.183.
The municipality does not charge any user fee for the
waste collection service (Tribhuvannagar municipality,
2008 data). The municipality has the vision to expand
its collection system to all the urban wards and is planning
to implement a HH waste management fee according to
the polluter pays concept. For this purpose, the
municipality is in discussions with TLOs; they have come
to an understanding to set the user charge at NRs.30 per
month from each HH, starting from the next fiscal year16
(Tribhuvannagar municipality, 2008 data). The
municipality is waiting for the municipal Board17 to
approve the decision on waste collection charges.
Organisational and
financial aspects
A total of thirty-four employees are engaged in solid waste
collection, transporting, sorting and landfilling operations
(Tribhuvannagar municipality, 2008 data). This includes
one administrator with nine employees at the landfill site.
The revenue of this municipality derives from property
tax, municipal tax, licence fees, grants from the
government and foreign organisations, and user charges.
In addition, the Town Development Fund (TDF) has provided
loans for municipal infrastructure improvements in past
years. The municipality has earned considerable income
from waste recycling and the sale of honey. The
municipality sold honey worth NRs. 57,090. Plastic for
Major problems and issues
Although the current system of waste management is
considered effective, the municipality is facing problems
resulting from rapid urbanisation, the poor response from
citizens to waste minimisation initiatives, the shortage
of waste management staff (more staff are required for
improving the waste separation and recycling activities),
financial limitations etc. In addition, the lack of authority
of the Community Development Section to make financial
and administrative decisions and implement enforcement
measures. Other obstacles include uncontrolled growth
of squatter settlements, poor co-operation between the
public and private sectors, and inadequate coordination
between stakeholders.
15 Liquid effluent from organic waste.
16 New fiscal year starts from mid July in Nepal
17 Each year during June-July municipality conducts municipal board meeting.