Issue 3: Society & Freshwater Aquatic Environment Interaction
• Loss of traditional knowledge on sustaining aquatic resources.
• Lack of understanding of the importance in maintaining a balanced aquatic ecosystem.
• Replacement of traditional extensive production systems with modern intensive production methods.
• Replacement of open access common property regime with restricted access and private ownership.
Intensive use of agro-chemicals (fertilizer and pesticide) in crop farming;
Dumping household, commercial and industrial waste into openwaters;
Application of poison (Rotenone, Phostoxin) to kill SIS and other aquatic organisms. _
A great deal of further research is required, and information should be made available to ensure the sustainable
management of SIS and its freshwater aquatic ecosystem.
Recommendations for further research are given below:
1. Research into the role and relative importance of SIS in nutrition:
• in its contribution to the diet; and
• the nutritional content (vitamins, minerals etc.) of both wild and cultured SIS stocks.
2. Information on SIS and the Freshwater Ecosystem:
• the habitat and environmental requirements of SIS in both open and closed water bodies;
• the reproduction cycle of SIS (behaviour, frequency, requirements etc.);
• the feeding regime and nutritional requirements of SIS; and
• the impact of pollution and environmental degradation on SIS.
3. Cultivation of SIS (for conservation and consumption):
• low input/low cost culture techniques for SIS pond culture;
• impact of direct (feeding) and indirect (fertilizing) methods/systems on growth and survival of SIS in ponds;
• determination of optimal species and species mix for SIS polyculture;
• determination of optimal methods for SIS culture (monoculture, poly culture, continuous harvesting etc.); and
• compatibility of growing SIS in ponds with exotic species.
4. Breeding techniques
• determine best methods for breeding SIS (induced/natural); and o determine best nursery production methods.
5. Stocking Regimes
6. Harvesting Methods _
• Promote policies which facilitate sustainable management of freshwater Small Indigenous Fish Species;
• Enhance human understanding and knowledge concerning the role of SIS in freshwater ecosystems;
• Promote local initiatives to identify SIS habitat, and secure water bodies as SIS fish sanctuaries;
• Promote selective and environmentally friendly fish catching methods;
• Discourage use of non-selective and environmentally destructive gears;
• Promote awareness on the need for restricting fishing during certain seasons, particularly on the damage caused
by fishing indiscriminately during the breeding season;
• Develop and implement participatory management of SIS involving key stakeholder groups;
• Identify researchable constraints toward sustainable culture of SIS.