MAINSTREAMING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
Climate variability is variations from the mean state (and other statistics, such as
standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal
and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events (IPCC 2007).
Climate vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to
cope with the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and
extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude and rate of climate
change and variation to which a system is exposed, it’s sensitivity and it’s adaptive
capacity (IPCC, 2007). Exposure to climate change is context specific – for example
a community living in a semi-arid area has greater exposure to drought.
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (DRR)
The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic analysis and
management of the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure
to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land
and the environment and improved preparedness for adverse events.
ENSO – EL NIÑO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION
ENSO is a complex interaction of the tropical Pacific ocean and the global
atmosphere that results in irregularly occurring episodes of changed ocean and
weather patterns in many months such as altered marine habitats, rainfall changes,
floods, droughts and changes in storm patterns (UNISDR 2009). El Niño y La Niña
are defined as sustained sea surface temperature anomalies of magnitude greater
than 0.5 C across the central tropical Pacific ocean, El Niño being a warming and La
Nina a cooling event. El Nino events are associated with wetter weather in
Peru/Ecuador and East Africa and drier conditions in South East Asia, northern
Australia and Southern Africa. La Niña events generally cause the opposite and are
associated with increased Atlantic cyclones. Climate change may increase the
strength and the frequency of the oscillation.
A Training Manual on Use of Climate Information and Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment for
Agricultural Extension Staff in Zimbabwe