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< prev - next > Disaster response mitigation and rebuilding Reconstruction Water Treatment during Reconstruction (Printable PDF)
Water Treatment During Reconstruction
Practical Action
This brief has covered some of the main practical solutions to water treatment, in the context of
the different stages of the reconstruction process. To generalise:
At the emergency stage of the reconstruction process, quality of water is often secondary
to quantity, provided that minimum standards can be met. Relief organisations are likely
to control water supplies, and may have to forgo certain treatments if insufficient time or
infrastructure exists.
The application of small scale solutions allows additional treatment of water supplies to
take place on a cost-effective and mobile basis.
Whilst people are displaced in transitional shelters, the upgrade of water distribution and
sanitary facilities will likely improve the quality of water from source. Existing treatment
facilities can be scaled up or improved.
Advanced treatment facilities require larger-scale engineering solutions, with extensive
community involvement in construction and operation. These are best suited to more
permanent stages of reconstruction where benefits can be felt over a longer period.
The technologies in this brief are by no means an exhaustive list, and new innovations may come
to market. The following is a list of references and further reading that will elaborate more on the
technologies covered here, and provide links to organisations that could provide further solutions:
References & Further Reading
Practical Action documents
Bio-Sand Water Filters
Clay Water Filters
Household Water Treatment Systems
Slow Sand-Filtration Water Treatment Plants
Solar Distillation
Solar Water Disinfection
Water Treatment Systems
‘Engineering in Emergencies: A Practical Guide for Relief Workers’,
Water Treatment in Emergencies PDF
Resources on water sanitation and hygiene URL
Arsenic Primer PDF
Ceramic Water Pots in Cambodia PDF
Wastewater Treatment Options PDF
Measuring Chlorine Levels in Water Supplies PDF
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality URL
Fluoride in Drinking-water PDF
Information Sheets on Water-related diseases URL
Browse the IRC digital library to find more resources at:
Arsenic in Drinking Water URL
Waste Stabilisation Ponds URL
Smart Water Solutions URL